F. Birol, World energy outlook 2012. Rapport technique, International Energy Agency, 2012.

S. Mitchell, N. Michels, and J. , Pérez-Ramírez : From powder to technical body : the undervalued science of catalyst scale up, Chemical Society Reviews, vol.42, pp.6094-6112, 2013.

J. Page, , 1978.

H. Fogler, Elements Of Chemical Reaction Engineering. Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference, 2006.

M. Abramowitz and I. A. , Stegun : Handbook of mathematical functions with formulas, graphs, and mathematical tables, vol.55, 1964.

P. Weisz, Polyfunctional heterogeneous catalysis. Advances in Catalysis, vol.13, pp.137-190, 1962.

M. Derrien, Selective hydrogenation applied to the refining of petrochemical raw materials produced by steam cracking, Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis, vol.27, pp.613-666, 1986.

C. Godinez, A. Cabanes, and G. Villora, Experimental study of the front-end selective hydrogenation of steam-cracking C 2-C 3 mixture, Process Intensification, vol.34, pp.459-468, 1995.

F. Shadman-yazdi and E. Petersen, Changing catalyst performance by varying the distribution of active catalyst within porous supports, Chemical Engineering Science, vol.27, issue.2, pp.227-237, 1972.

W. Corbett and D. Luss, The influence of non-uniform catalytic activity on the performance of a single spherical pellet, Chemical Engineering Science, vol.29, issue.6, pp.1473-1483, 1974.

J. Villadsen, The effectiveness factor for an isothermal pellet with decreasing activity towards the pellet surface, Chemical Engineering Science, vol.31, issue.12, pp.1212-1213, 1976.

A. Berenblyum, S. Mund, V. Karelskii, T. Goranskaya, V. Zolotukhin et al., Catalysts for selective hydrogenation of unsaturated compounds, with regulated palladium distribution on alumina pellet, Kinetics and Catalysis, vol.27, issue.1, pp.205-209, 1986.

T. Lin and T. Chou, Selective hydrogenation of isoprene on eggshell and uniform palladium profile catalysts, Applied Catalysis A : General, vol.108, issue.1, pp.7-19, 1994.

F. Bertoncini, A. Bonduelle-skrzypczak, J. Francis, and E. Guillon, Hydrocracking. In H. Toulhoat et P. Raybaud, éditeurs : Catalysis by Transition Metal Sulfides. Editions TECHNIP, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01387819

F. Alvarez, F. Ribeiro, G. Perot, C. Thomazeau, and M. Guisnet, Hydroisomerization and hydrocracking of alkanes : 7. influence of the balance between acid and hydrogenating functions on the transformation ofn-decane on pthy catalysts, vol.162, pp.179-189, 1996.

S. Elangovan and M. Hartmann, Evaluation of Pt/MCM-41//MgAPOn composite catalysts for isomerization and hydrocracking of n-decane, Journal of Catalysis, vol.217, issue.2, pp.388-395, 2003.

M. Arribas, P. Concepción, and A. Martínez, The role of metal sites during the coupled hydrogenation and ring opening of tetralin on bifunctional Pt(Ir)/USY catalysts, Applied Catalysis A : General, vol.267, issue.1, pp.111-119, 2004.

I. Merdriganc, M. Roy-auberger, D. Guillaume, and J. Verstraete, Hydroprocessing and hydroconversion of residue fractions, H. Toulhoat et P. Raybaud, éditeurs : Catalysis by Transition Metal Sulfides. Editions TECHNIP, 2013.

, novembre 2012 modifiant la directive 1999/32/CE en ce qui concerne la teneur en soufre des combustibles marins, Journal officiel de L'Union européenne, vol.327, pp.1-13, 2012.

J. Speight, Petroleum Asphaltenes-Part 1 : Asphaltenes, resins and the structure of petroleum. Oil & gas science and technology, vol.59, pp.467-477, 2004.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02017323

T. Yen, J. Erdman, and S. Pollack, Investigation of the structure of petroleum asphaltenes by X-ray diffraction, Analytical Chemistry, vol.33, issue.11, pp.1587-1594, 1961.

J. Plumail, Y. Jacquin, G. Martino, and H. Toulhoat, Effect of the pore size distribution on the activities of alumina supported Co-Mo catalysts in the hydrotreatment of Boscan crude, Division of Petroleum Chemistry, vol.28, issue.3, pp.562-575, 1983.

J. Plumail, Étude de l'influence de la texture poreuse des catalyseurs CoO-MoO 3 /Al 2 O 3 lors de l'hydrotraitement du pétrole brut de Boscan, École Nationale Supérieure du Pétrole et des Moteurs, 1983.

A. Guinier, X-ray diffraction : in crystals, imperfect crystals, and amorphous bodies, 1994.

P. Scherrer, Bestimmung der grösse und der inneren struktur von kolloidteilchen mittels röntgenstrahlen, Nachrichten von der Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, Mathematisch-Physikalische Klasse, pp.98-100, 1918.

R. Schloegl, X-ray diffraction : A basic tool for characterization of solid catalysts in the working state, Advances in Catalysis, vol.52, pp.273-338, 2009.

J. Thomas and O. Terasaki, The electron microscope is an indispensable instrument for the characterisation of catalysts, Topics in catalysis, vol.21, issue.4, pp.155-159, 2002.

J. Sanders, High resolution electron microscopy of some catalytic particles, Direct Imaging of Atoms in Crystals and Molecules, pp.141-145, 1977.

S. Pollack, J. Sanders, and R. Tischer, High-reflectance and single layer MoS 2 : two new forms, Applied catalysis, vol.8, issue.3, pp.383-388, 1983.

J. Cowley and A. Moodie, The scattering of electrons by atoms and crystals. I. a new theoretical approach, Acta Crystallographica, vol.10, issue.10, pp.609-619, 1957.

A. Metherell, Electron microscopy in materials science, pp.397-552, 1975.

T. Ichinokawa, H. Kobayashi, and M. Nakajima, Density effect of X-Ray emission from porous specimens in quantitative electron probe microanalysis, Japanese journal of applied physics, vol.8, issue.12, 1969.

S. Abo-namous, On the peak-to-background ratio in microprobe analysis of porous materials. Microbeam analysis, pp.239-241, 1989.

R. Lakis, E. Vicenzi, and F. Allen, Electron-probe microanalysis of alumina supported platinum catalysts, Microscopy and Microanalysis, pp.512-513, 1996.

E. Iglesia, S. Soled, J. Baumgartner, and S. Reyes, Synthesis and catalytic properties of eggshell cobalt catalysts for the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, Journal of Catalysis, vol.153, issue.1, pp.108-122, 1995.

J. Schwarz and M. Heise, Preparation of metal distributions within catalyst supports : IV. multicomponent effects, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol.135, issue.2, pp.461-467, 1990.

P. Papageorgiou, D. Price, A. Gavriilidis, and A. Varma, Preparation of Pt/?-Al 2 O 3 pellets with internal step-distribution of catalyst : Experiments and theory, Journal of Catalysis, vol.158, issue.2, pp.439-451, 1996.

J. Chang and T. Chou, Selective hydrogenation of isoprene over ?-alumina-supported eggshell Pd catalysts : Particle size effects, Applied Catalysis A : General, vol.156, issue.2, pp.193-205, 1997.

Z. Shao, C. Li, X. Chen, M. Pang, X. Wang et al., A facile and controlled route to prepare an eggshell Pd catalyst for selective hydrogenation of phenylacetylene, ChemCatChem, vol.2, issue.12, pp.1555-1558, 2010.

D. Sherwood and B. Emmanuel, Computing shapes of nanocrystals from X-ray diffraction data, Crystal growth & design, vol.6, issue.6, pp.1415-1419, 2006.

K. Beyerlein, Simulation and modeling of the powder diffraction pattern from nanoparticles : studying the influence of surface strain, 2011.

T. Proffen and R. Neder, DISCUS : a program for diffuse scattering and defect-structure simulation, Journal of applied crystallography, vol.30, issue.2, pp.171-175, 1997.

L. Gelisio, K. Beyerlein, and P. Scardi, Atomistic modeling of lattice relaxation in metallic nanocrystals, th Size-Strain International Conference Diffraction analysis of the microstructure of materials, vol.530, pp.35-39, 2013.

N. Thomas, A new approach to calculating powder diffraction patterns based on the Debye scattering equation, Acta Crystallographica Section A : Foundations of Crystallography, vol.66, issue.1, pp.64-77, 2009.

A. Cervellino, C. Giannini, and A. Guagliardi, Determination of nanoparticle structure type, size and strain distribution from X-ray data for monatomic fcc-derived noncrystallographic nanoclusters, Journal of applied crystallography, vol.36, issue.5, pp.1148-1158, 2003.

A. Cervellino, C. Giannini, and A. Guagliardi, On the efficient evaluation of Fourier patterns for nanoparticles and clusters, Journal of computational chemistry, vol.27, issue.9, pp.995-1008, 2006.

B. Hall and R. Monot, Calculating the debye-scherrer diffraction pattern for large clusters, Computers in Physics, vol.5, pp.414-417, 1991.

A. Reiten, X-ray scattering simulations using GPU-enabled algorithms, 2010.

V. Gnutzmann and W. Vogel, Structural sensitivity of the standard platinum/silica catalyst EuroPt-1 to hydrogen and oxygen exposure by in situ X-ray diffraction, Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol.94, issue.12, pp.4991-4997, 1990.

O. Ducreux, B. Rebours, J. Lynch, M. Roy-auberger, and D. Bazin, Microstructure of supported cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. Oil & Gas Science and Technology-Revue d'IFP Energies nouvelles, vol.64, pp.49-62, 2008.
DOI : 10.2516/ogst:2008039

URL : https://ogst.ifpenergiesnouvelles.fr/articles/ogst/pdf/2009/01/ogst08030.pdf

L. Houben, A. Enyashin, Y. Feldman, R. Rosentsveig, D. Stroppa et al., Diffraction from disordered stacking sequences in MoS 2 and WS 2 fullerenes and nanotubes, The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol.116, issue.45, pp.24350-24357, 2012.
DOI : 10.1021/jp3080139

J. Tonnerre, Étude de l'ordre local d'un catalyseur d'hydrodésulfuration Ni-Mo non supporté par la diffusion anomale des RX, 1989.

D. Chiche, M. Digne, R. Revel, C. Chanéac, and J. Jolivet, Accurate determination of oxide nanoparticle size and shape based on X-ray powder pattern simulation : application to boehmite AlOOH, The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol.112, issue.23, pp.8524-8533, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00347945

W. Vogel, B. Rosner, and B. Tesche, Structural investigations of Au 55 organometallic complexes by X-ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, The Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol.97, issue.45, pp.11611-11616, 1993.
DOI : 10.1021/j100147a009

D. Zanchet, B. Hall, and D. Ugarte, Structure population in thiol-passivated gold nanoparticles, The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol.104, issue.47, pp.11013-11018, 2000.
DOI : 10.1021/jp0017644

R. Harrington, R. Neder, and J. Parise, The nature of X-ray scattering from geonanoparticles : practical considerations of the use of the Debye equation and the pair distribution function for structure analysis, Chemical Geology, 2011.

K. Beyerlein, R. Snyder, M. Li, and P. Scardi, Application of the Debye function to systems of crystallites, Philosophical Magazine, vol.90, issue.29, pp.3891-3905, 2010.

M. Ramos-fernández, Nanoparticules de Pd pour la catalyse : structure atomique et agrégation des solides préparés par voie colloïdale, 2003.

B. Didillon, E. Merlen, T. Pages, and D. Uzio, From colloidal particles to supported catalysts : a comprehensive study of palladium oxide hydrosols deposited on alumina, Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis, vol.118, pp.41-54, 1998.

M. Haider, H. Rose, S. Uhlemann, E. Schwan, B. Kabius et al., A sphericalaberration-corrected 200kv transmission electron microscope, Ultramicroscopy, vol.75, issue.1, pp.53-60, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/s0304-3991(98)00048-5

K. Urban, Studying atomic structures by aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy, Science, vol.321, issue.5888, pp.506-510, 2008.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1152800

D. Espinat, F. Thevenot, J. Grimoud, and K. E. Malki, Powerful new software for the simulation of WAXS and SAXS diagrams, Journal of applied crystallography, vol.26, issue.3, pp.368-383, 1993.
DOI : 10.1107/s0021889892011944

URL : http://journals.iucr.org/j/issues/1993/03/00/la0028/la0028.pdf

O. Ersen, J. Werckmann, M. Houlle, M. Ledoux, and C. Pham-huu, 3D electron microscopy study of metal particles inside multiwalled carbon nanotubes, Nano Letters, vol.7, issue.7, pp.1898-1907, 2007.
DOI : 10.1021/nl070529v

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00212140

R. Grothausmann, G. Zehl, I. Manke, S. Fiechter, P. Bogdanoff et al., Quantitative Structural Assessment of Heterogeneous Catalysts by Electron Tomography, Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol.133, issue.45, pp.18161-18171, 2011.

C. J. Gommes, K. De-jong, J. P. Pirard, and S. Blacher, Assessment of the 3D localization of metallic nanoparticles in Pd/SiO2 cogelled catalysts by electron tomography, Langmuir, vol.21, issue.26, pp.12378-12385, 2005.

H. Friedrich, J. R. Sietsma, P. E. De-jongh, A. J. Verkleij, K. P. De et al., Measuring location, size, distribution, and loading of NiO crystallites in individual SBA-15 pores by electron tomography, Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol.129, issue.33, pp.10249-10254, 2007.

J. Gonzalez, J. Hernandez, M. Lopez-haro, E. Del-rio, J. Delgado et al., 3D Characterization of Gold Nanoparticles Supported on Heavy Metal Oxide Catalysts by HAADF-STEM Electron Tomography, vol.48, pp.5313-5315, 2009.

P. Euzen, P. Raybaud, X. Krokidis, H. Toulhoat, J. Loarer et al., éditeurs : Handbook of porous solids, pp.1591-1677, 2002.

W. Pyrz and D. Buttrey, Particle size determination using TEM : a discussion of image acquisition and analysis for the novice microscopist, Langmuir, vol.24, issue.20, pp.11350-11360, 2008.

C. Granqvist and R. Buhrman, Size distributions for supported metal catalysts : Coalescence growth versus Ostwald ripening, Journal of Catalysis, vol.42, issue.3, pp.477-479, 1976.

E. Limpert, W. Stahel, and M. Abbt, Log-normal distributions across the sciences : keys and clues, BioScience, vol.51, issue.5, pp.341-352, 2001.

M. Lejeune, Statistique : la théorie et ses applications, 2004.

B. Rosner, Percentage points for a generalized ESD many-outlier procedure, Technometrics, vol.25, issue.2, pp.165-172, 1983.

Y. Li, Z. Zhou, and H. Chen, Detection of outliers from the lognormal distribution in financial economics. Cutting-Edge Research Topics on Multiple Criteria Decision Making, pp.63-67, 2009.

S. Meintanis, A powerful method of assessing the fit of the lognormal distribution, Communications in Statistics-Theory and Methods, vol.37, issue.12, pp.1948-1958, 2008.

G. Box and M. Muller, A note on the generation of random normal deviates, The Annals of Mathematical Statistics, vol.29, issue.2, pp.610-611, 1958.

M. Yacamán and J. Domínguez, On the determination of particle size distributions in supported metal catalysts, Journal of Catalysis, vol.67, issue.2, pp.475-478, 1981.

O. Pérez, D. Romeu, and M. Yacamán, The relation between dispersion and particle size on supported catalysts, Journal of Catalysis, vol.79, issue.1, pp.240-241, 1983.

R. Van-hardeveld and F. Hartog, The statistics of surface atoms and surface sites on metal crystals, Surface Science, vol.15, issue.2, pp.189-230, 1969.

W. Press, S. Teukolsky, W. Vetterling, and B. Flannery, Numerical recipes in Fortran 77 and Fortran 90 : Source code for recipes and example programs, 1996.

A. Gandubert, Caractérisation et quantification de la phase sulfure des catalyseurs d'hydrotraitement : influence de la nature des précurseurs oxydes et des conditions de sulfuration, 2006.

M. Benkhaled, C. Descorme, D. Duprez, S. Morin, C. Thomazeau et al., Study of hydrogen surface mobility and hydrogenation reactions over alumina-supported palladium catalysts, Applied Catalysis A : General, vol.346, issue.1, pp.36-43, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00740091

H. Toulhoat, R. Szymanski, and J. , Plumail : Interrelations between initial pore structure, morphology and distribution of accumulated deposits, and lifetimes of hydrodemetallisation catalysts, Catalysis Today, vol.7, issue.4, pp.531-568, 1990.

J. Crank, The mathematics of diffusion, 1979.

F. Fornasiero, J. Prausnitz, and C. Radke, Multicomponent diffusion in highly asymmetric systems. an extended Maxwell-Stefan model for starkly different-sized, segment-accessible chain molecules, Macromolecules, vol.38, issue.4, pp.1364-1370, 2005.

C. Ferreira, M. Tayakout-fayolle, I. Guibard, F. Lemos, H. Toulhoat et al., Hydrodesulfurization and hydrodemetallization of different origin vacuum residues : Characterization and reactivity. Fuel, vol.98, pp.218-228, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00725752

C. , Étude de la contribution catalytique à la stabilité des effluents en hydroconversion des résidus sous vide, 2010.

L. Roussi, J. Stihle, C. Geantet, D. Uzio, and M. Tayakout-fayolle, Coal-derived liquid asphaltenes diffusion and adsorption in supported hydrotreating catalysts, Fuel, vol.109, pp.167-177, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00861140

R. Egerton, Application of electron energy-loss spectroscopy to the study of solid catalysts, Topics in catalysis, vol.21, issue.4, pp.185-190, 2002.

P. Midgley and M. Weyland, 3D electron microscopy in the physical sciences : the development of Z-contrast and EFTEM tomography, vol.96, pp.413-432, 2003.

G. Möbus, Inkson : Three-dimensional reconstruction of buried nanoparticles by element-sensitive tomography based on inelastically scattered electrons, Applied Physics Letters, vol.79, issue.9, pp.1369-1371, 2001.

G. Möbus and R. Doole, Inkson : Spectroscopic electron tomography, Ultramicroscopy, vol.96, issue.3, pp.433-451, 2003.

A. Corma, Inorganic solid acids and their use in acid-catalyzed hydrocarbon reactions, Chemical reviews, vol.95, issue.3, pp.559-614, 1995.

A. Chaumonnot, Progress in the preparation of catalysts with controlled acidity : Case of aluminosilicate supports, H. Toulhoat et P. Raybaud, éditeurs : Catalysis by Transition Metal Sulfides. Editions TECHNIP, 2013.

W. Schlaffer, C. Morgan, and J. Wilson, Aging of silica-alumina cracking catalyst. I. kinetics of structural changes by heat and steam, The Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol.61, issue.6, pp.714-722, 1957.

U. Sedran and N. Fígoli, Acidity modification by thermal and steam treatment in silicaalumina and its relation with methanol to hydrocarbons reaction, Reaction Kinetics and Catalysis Letters, vol.39, issue.2, pp.363-366, 1989.

N. Otsu, A threshold selection method from gray-level histograms, Automatica, vol.11, pp.23-27, 1975.

J. Kapur, P. Sahoo, and A. Wong, A new method for gray-level picture thresholding using the entropy of the histogram. Computer vision, graphics, and image processing, vol.29, pp.273-285, 1985.

L. Huang and M. Wang, Image thresholding by minimizing the measures of fuzziness, Pattern recognition, vol.28, issue.1, pp.41-51, 1995.

E. Diday, Une nouvelle méthode en classification automatique et reconnaissance des formes la méthode des nuées dynamiques, vol.19, pp.19-33, 1971.

A. Dempster, N. Laird, and D. Rubin, Maximum likelihood from incomplete data via the EM algorithm, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series B (Methodological), pp.1-38, 1977.

J. Serra, Image analysis and mathematical morphology, 1982.

Z. Wang and A. Bovik, A universal image quality index, Signal Processing Letters, vol.9, issue.3, pp.81-84, 2002.

Z. Wang, A. Bovik, H. Sheikh, and E. Simoncelli, Image quality assessment : From error visibility to structural similarity. Image Processing, IEEE Transactions on, vol.13, issue.4, pp.600-612, 2004.

J. Oh, G. Kwon, D. Mun, H. Yoo, Y. Choi et al., Application of review-SEM to high-resolution inspection for 3xnm nodes, A. Starikov, éditeur : Proc. of SPIE, vol.8324, pp.83242-83243, 2012.

S. Takada, N. Ban, T. Ishimoto, N. Suzuki, S. Umehara et al., Advanced full-automatic inspection of copper interconnects, A. Starikov, éditeur : Proc. of SPIE, vol.8324, pp.83242-83243, 2012.

R. White and A. Owens, Automation of gunshot residue detection and analysis by scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX), Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol.32, issue.6, pp.1595-603, 1987.

J. Lebiedzik and D. Johnson, Rapid search and quantitative analysis of gunshot residue particles in the SEM, Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol.45, issue.1, pp.83-92, 2000.

Z. Brozek-mucha and A. Jankowicz, Evaluation of the possibility of differentiation between various types of ammunition by means of GSR examination with SEM-EDX method, Forensic Science International, vol.123, issue.1, pp.39-47, 2001.

V. Kindratenko, P. Van-espen, B. Treiger, and R. Van-grieken, Fractal dimensional classification of aerosol particles by computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy. Environmental science & technology, vol.28, pp.2197-2202, 1994.

Y. Xie, P. Hopke, G. Casuccio, and B. Henderson, Use of chain code histogram method to quantify airborne particle shapes, Aerosol science and technology, vol.21, issue.3, pp.210-218, 1994.

B. Sitzmann, M. Kendall, J. Watt, and I. Williams, Characterisation of airborne particles in london by computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy, Science of the Total Environment, vol.241, issue.1, pp.63-73, 1999.

P. Poelt, M. Schmied, I. Obernberger, T. Brunner, and J. Dahl, Automated analysis of submicron particles by computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy, Scanning, vol.24, issue.2, pp.92-100, 2002.

E. Coz, B. Artíñano, A. Robinson, G. Casuccio, T. Lersch et al., Individual particle morphology and acidity, Aerosol Science and Technology, vol.42, issue.3, pp.224-232, 2008.

S. Kennedy, W. Walker, and B. Forslund, Speciation and characterization of heavy metalcontaminated soils using computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy, Environmental Forensics, vol.3, issue.2, pp.131-143, 2002.

K. Matsuoka, Y. Suzuki, K. Eylands, S. Benson, and A. Tomita, CCSEM study of ash forming reactions during lignite gasification, Fuel, vol.85, issue.17, pp.2371-2376, 2006.

R. Matjie and C. Van-alphen, Mineralogical features of size and density fractions in Sasol coal gasification ash, South Africa and potential by-products, Fuel, vol.87, issue.8, pp.1439-1445, 2008.

N. Keulen, D. Frei, S. Bernstein, M. Hutchison, C. Knudsen et al., Fully automated analysis of grain chemistry, size and morphology by CCSEM : examples from cement production and diamond exploration, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland Bulletin, vol.15, pp.93-96, 2008.

N. Keulen, M. Hutchison, and D. Frei, Computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy : A fast and reliable tool for diamond prospecting, Journal of Geochemical Exploration, vol.103, issue.1, pp.1-5, 2009.

R. Gupta, T. Wall, I. Kajigaya, S. Miyamae, and Y. Tsumita, Computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy of minerals in coal-implications for ash deposition, Progress in energy and combustion science, vol.24, issue.6, pp.523-543, 1998.

J. Russ and R. Dehoff, Practical Stereology, vol.87, 1999.

L. Sorbier, E. Rosenberg, C. Merlet, and X. Llovet, EPMA of porous media : a Monte Carlo approach, Microchimica Acta, vol.132, issue.2, pp.189-199, 2000.

X. Llovet, L. Sorbier, C. Campos, E. Acosta, and F. Salvat, Monte Carlo simulation of X-ray spectra generated by kilo-electron-volt electrons, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.93, issue.7, pp.3844-3851, 2003.

L. Sorbier, E. Rosenberg, and C. Merlet, Microanalysis of porous materials, vol.10, pp.745-752, 2004.

M. Ramos-fernández, L. Normand, and L. Sorbier, Structural and morphological characterization of alumina supported Pd nanoparticles obtained by colloïdal synthesis, Oil & gas science and technology, vol.62, issue.1, pp.101-113, 2007.

S. Goergen, E. Guillon, B. Rebours, L. Sorbier, J. Patarin et al., Dry gel conversion synthesis of zeolite EU-1 from low alkali containing precursors, Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis, vol.170, pp.444-449, 2007.

G. Alloncle, N. Gilon, C. Legens, C. Lienemann, B. Rebours et al., Revel : Following the evolution of morphology, composition and crystallography of alumina based catalysts after laser ablation : Implications for analysis by LA-ICP-AES, Applied Surface Science, vol.255, issue.22, pp.8978-8985, 2009.

M. Tayakout, C. Ferreira, D. Espinat, S. Arribas-picon, L. Sorbier et al., Diffusion of asphaltene molecules through the pore structure of hydroconversion catalysts, Chemical Engineering Science, vol.65, issue.5, pp.1571-1583, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00495180

L. Roiban, L. Sorbier, C. Pichon, C. Pham-huu, M. Drillon et al., 3DTEM investigation of the nanostructure of a ?-Al 2 O 3 catalyst support decorated with Pd nanoparticles, Nanoscale, vol.4, issue.3, pp.946-954, 2012.

L. Roiban, L. Sorbier, C. Pichon, P. Bayle-guillemaud, J. Werckmann et al., Three-Dimensional Chemistry of Multiphase Nanomaterials by Energy-Filtered Transmission Electron Microscopy Tomography, Microscopy and Microanalysis, vol.18, issue.5, pp.1118-1128, 2012.
DOI : 10.1017/s143192761200116x

L. Sorbier, A. Gay, A. Fécant, M. Moreaud, and N. Brodusch, Measurement of palladium crust thickness on catalysts by optical microscopy and image analysis, Microscopy and Microanalysis, vol.19, pp.293-299, 2013.

J. Scalbert, C. Legens, I. Clémençon, A. Taleb, L. Sorbier et al., Multiple and antagonistic effects of water on intrinsic physical properties of model Fischer-Tropsch cobalt catalysts evidenced by in situ X-ray diffraction, Chemical Communications, vol.50, pp.7866-7869, 2014.

, Actes de congrès

C. Merlet, L. Sorbier, E. Rosenberg, and E. F. Salvat, A Monte Carlo study of EPMA of porous alumina, IUMAS 2, 2nd International Union of Microbeam Analysis Societies Conference, 9-14 juillet, Physics Conference Series, vol.165, pp.277-278, 2000.

L. Sorbier, E. Rosenberg, C. Merlet, F. Kling, M. Barao et al., Advanced Monte Carlo for radiation physics, particle transport simulation and applications, Monte Carlo Simulations on rough and porous alumina, pp.389-394, 2000.

B. Celse, S. Bres, F. Moreau, P. Gueroult, and E. L. Sorbier, Semi-Automatic detection of sulfur slabs, STERMAT 2008 : VIII International Conference on Stereology and Image Analysis in Materials Sciences, 2-6 septembre, vol.29, pp.421-426, 2008.

L. Sorbier, A. Gay, A. Fécant, M. Moreaud, and N. Brodusch, Measurement of palladium crust thickness on catalyst by EPMA, EMAS 2011, 12th European Workshop on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis, vol.32, p.12023, 2011.

L. Sorbier, M. Moreaud, F. Bazer-bachi, and V. Moizan-basle, Use of the Distance Transform for the Integration of Local Measurements : Principle and Application in the Field of Chemical Engineering, Connecticut, USA. Microscopy and Microanalysis, vol.20, issue.3, pp.866-867, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01394873

L. Sorbier, Apport de la simulation dans l'optimisation de l'analyse quantitative par microsonde électronique de catalyseurs hétérogènes, 2001.

L. Fischer, C. Petit-clair, C. Thomazeau, L. Sorbier, and C. Verdon, Catalyst comprising palladium and selective hydrogenation application thereof, vol.879, 2009.

S. Maury, C. Legens, L. Sorbier, F. Diehl, J. Lopez et al., Cobalt-based catalyst on silica-alumina support for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, EP Patent, vol.2, p.2012

L. Sorbier, Determining the Distribution of Metals by Electron Probe Micro Analysis, Catalysis by Transition Metal Sulphides, édité par P. Raybaud et H. Toulhoat, Éditions Technip, 2013.

C. Geantet and L. Sorbier, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Microanalysis, and Hydrotreating Catalysts, Catalysis by Transition Metal Sulphides, édité par P. Raybaud et H. Toulhoat, Éditions Technip, 2013.

L. Fekar, Étude de la diffusion des asphaltènes dans la porosité de catalyseurs d'alumine, DESS Instrumentation et Méthodes Physico-Chimiques d'Analyse, 2002.

V. Tran, Segmentation d'images MEB par seuillage de l'histogramme en niveau de gris, 2011.

R. Echegut, Université d'Orléans, décembre-avril, Caractérisation morphologique et quantitative d'images segmentées, Master PASSION (Processus, Automatique, Simulation, Statistiques, Imagerie, Optimisation Numérique), 2011.

R. Mesnier, Étude des liens entre la texture et les propriétés de diffusion de molécules modèles dans des milieux poreux bimodaux, 2008.

L. Roiban, Tomographie électronique analytique : développement de la cartographie chimique 3D à l'échelle du nanomètre et applications aux catalyseurs inhomogènes, 2010.

H. Wang, Modèles d'alumines mésoporeuses formées de plaquettes, Centre de Morphologie Mathématique MINES ParisTech-IFPEN, Ecole doctorale 432 Sciences des Métiers de l'Ingénieur, pp.2013-2016

S. Drouyer, Topographie 3D par approche segmentation : application au microscope électronique à balayage, Ecole doctorale 432 Sciences des Métiers de l'Ingénieur, pp.2014-2017