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Advances in the Understanding of Multi-Scale and Coupled Evolution of Orogens, Sedimentary Basins and the Underlying Lithosphere

Abstract : The integrated understanding of processes and mechanisms driving the coupled evolution of orogens and sedimentary basins and the underlying lithosphere-mantle system, requires a multi-scale temporal and spatial approach that crosses the traditional boundaries of disciplines and methodologies. While analysing the sedimentary infill we need to account for the characteristics and variations of the exhumation, evolving topography and external forcing in the source area, and the complexity of a transport system that is often characterized by a massive unidirectional sediment influx during moments of activity at tipping points or gateways. Such an influx can often span across multiple depocenters and sedimentary basins and is conditioned by an evolving structural geometry that can migrate in time, directly related to the evolving lithospheric structure in orogens that are influenced by their inherited rheology. Depocenters can be fed from multiple directions, while having an endemic or endorheic character during key evolutionary moments. The thermal structure and its variability in continental and oceanic domains conditions the rheology and subsequent structural evolution of the orogens, subduction zones and sedimentary basins, with significant consequences for understanding societally relevant issues. Quantifying basin deposition requires analysing the sediment transport network that can often span multiple interacting orogenic and sedimentary systems, where understanding the allogenic or autogenic nature of sedimentary processes can be significantly enhanced by knowing the inherited and evolving structural and tectonic parameters. Such sedimentary quantification is important for understanding the orogenic structure and the evolution of subduction systems, that include mechanisms such as cycles of burial-exhumation, formation of highly arcuate orogens and timings of nappe stacking events. Deriving processes in orogen - sedimentary basins systems also requires testing process-oriented hypotheses by focused studies in well-known natural laboratories, such as the examples from the Pannonian-Carpathians - Alps - Dinarides system and its analogues used by the numerous contributions in the special Global and Planetary Change issue entitled Understanding the multi-scale and coupled evolution of orogens, sedimentary basins and their underlying lithosphere, whose significance is explained in our review.
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Liviu Matenco, Attila Balázs, Fadi Nader, Bilal U. Haq, László Fodor. Advances in the Understanding of Multi-Scale and Coupled Evolution of Orogens, Sedimentary Basins and the Underlying Lithosphere. Global and Planetary Change, Elsevier, 2021, 208, pp.103689. ⟨10.1016/j.gloplacha.2021.103689⟩. ⟨hal-03586388⟩

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