Design optimization and optimal control for hybrid vehicles

Abstract : In the context of growing environmental concerns, hybrid-electric vehicles appear to be one of the most promising technologies for reducing fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. This paper presents a parametric study focused on variations of the size of the powertrain components, and optimization of the power split between the engine and electric motor with respect to fuel consumption. To take into account the ability of the engine to be turned off, and the energy consumed to start the engine, we consider a second state to represent the engine: this state permits to obtain a more realistic engine model than it is usually done. Results are obtained for a prescribed vehicle cycle thanks to a dynamic programming algorithm based on a reduced model, and furnish the optimal power repartition at each time step regarding fuel consumption under constraints on the battery state of charge, and may then be used to determine the best components of a given powertrain. To control the energy sources in real driving conditions, when the future is unknown , a real-time control strategy is used: the Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS). In this strategy, the battery is being considered as an auxiliary reversible fuel reservoir, using a scaling parameter which can be deduced from dynamic programming results. Offline optimization results and ECMS are compared for a realistic hybrid vehicle application.
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Yohan Milhau, Delphine Sinoquet, Grégory Rousseau. Design optimization and optimal control for hybrid vehicles. Optimization and Engineering, Springer Verlag, 2011, 12 (1-2), pp.199-213. ⟨10.1007/s11081-009-9100-8⟩. ⟨hal-02284149⟩

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