Freezing Within Emulsions: Theoretical Aspects and Engineering Applications.

Abstract : This article ismainly focused on the freezing behaviour ofemulsionswhichwill be considered either as systems permitting to get information about undercooled materials or as complex dispersed systems involved in industrial processes. Due to the fact that there exists a phase dispersed as tiny droplets in emulsions, solidification delays are observed and liquid droplets are still observed under the melting points of pure materials. The correlation between the solidification temperature of the droplets and their size may be therefore used to followthe evolution of the emulsionmorphology versus timeon ground as in microgravity conditions (FASES project supported by ESA). A description of these phenomena mainly observed through microcalorimetry experiments will be given for dispersed pure materials as for dispersed solutions. In some cases, emulsions may be sought after for their specific properties, such as their large oil/water interface, leading to enhanced mass transfers; emulsionsmay be consequently used as liquid membranes for extraction, storage and controlled release of activematerials. In other cases, the formation of emulsions has a detrimental effect on the process. It is the case in the oil industrywhere very stablewaterin- crude oil emulsions form easily and complicate the operation of crude oil dehydration.
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Danièle Clausse, Christine Dalmazzone. Freezing Within Emulsions: Theoretical Aspects and Engineering Applications.. Oil & Gas Science and Technology - Revue d'IFP Energies nouvelles, Institut Français du Pétrole, 2014, 69 (3), pp. 415-434. ⟨10.2516/ogst/2013147⟩. ⟨hal-01067850⟩

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